Areas of Expertise

Bilingual education

We have written and presented on research, theory, methods, and models of bilingual education.

Academic language

We have written extensively about types of English language learners and their academic language needs. We have explained what academic language is at different levels – text, paragraph, sentence, and word. We have discussed how teachers can develop both content and language objectives to promote academic English.

Second language acquisition

We have reviewed key theories of second language acquisition and shown how teachers can implement effective practices for ELLs based on current theory and research.

Literacy and biliteracy

We have reviewed methods of teaching reading in both Spanish and English. We discuss ways teachers can develop a balanced literacy approach for second language students.


We have discussed the importance of linguistics for teaching ELLs and teaching reading. Our book makes linguistics comprehensible for teachers.

Dual language

We conducted research across the U.S. and abroad on different models of dual language instruction. We have identified essentials for successful dual language programs.


Drawing on the research of O. García and her colleagues, we have written and presented on translanguaging. Implementing translanguaging in schools with emergent bilinguals allows students to draw upon their full linguistic repertoires as they learn language and content. We have defined defined translanguaging and provided real classroom examples of how to implement it.

ESL methods

We have written and presented on current and past ESL methods, helping teachers to understand what the best approaches are to teaching both academic language and content to emergent bilingual students.